Stakeholders are defined as the people and organizations who are involved in or affected by an action or policy and can be directly or indirectly included in the decision making process. In environmental and conservation planning, stakeholders typically include government representatives, business and industry, scientists and technological community, NGOs, local authorities, landowners, and local users of natural resources. These stakeholders often have very different positions and values that may be difficult to reconcile with each other and any planned project or intervention. This course, which is largely based on independent work, will provide an overview of why it is important to incorporate different stakeholders, including underrepresented groups and “hidden” stakeholders, in the planning process and explores the potential benefits of inclusion. The lectures and assignment will focus on conducting stakeholder analyses to identify relevant stakeholders, assessing their views and interests on a proposed project, and developing an engagement plan of a particular stakeholder on the project.