The course will examine urban development in medieval Europe from the Early Middle Ages (and a few detours to Late Antiquity) to the early Modern Period with a special focus on settlement topography. We will discuss urban morphology, criteria of urbanity, and urban typology in general and in the context of (European) regional as well as global urban developments. Since towns are the most dynamic types of human settlements, modern metropolises often hide their historical phases. In order to trace the elements of urban heritage (historical buildings, actors, and actions) in present-day urban fabrics, one must understand the general trends and characteristics of medieval (regional) urbanism. The aim of this course is, therefore, to investigate different types of sources related to the topography, their character, and their methodological usability for urban topographical reconstructions. The course consists of general introductions to individual topics (provided by the instructor and by some invited colleagues) and regular discussions of the assigned readings during the class. The course will also provide several opportunities for field work by organizing guided visits to external institutions (archives and archaeological sites).