The main question addressed by historiography on Jewish assimilation and identity in the long nineteenth century was and remains whether a high degree of acculturation could be consistent with a high degree of Jewish self-assertiveness and sense of Jewish communal belonging. This question is the main focus of this course, which aims to provide an overview of the identity dilemmas faced by emancipated and acculturated Jews in Central and Western Europe (with a strong focus on Germany), and of their success or failure in dealing with these dilemmas. As acculturation, secularization and integration are multi-generational processes, the course will focus on the second half of the nineteenth century, or more precisely the five decades preceding World War I. By the very nature of its inquiry, the course will restrict itself on those who found themselves entangled in these identity dilemmas, that is, those Jews whom Ezra Mendelsohn called “integrationists”, instead of the pejorative “assimilationists”. That historians are still debating the very name by which the majority of Jews in fin-de-siècle Central and Western Europe should be labeled is maybe the best indication of the issue’s enduring relevance.