In order to pass the exam, it is expected from students to attend all the lessons, hand in solutions to all problem sets, which will be given to them during the lectures, and score at least 50% of the final exam. Before the lectures start, students will take a mandatory assessment test which is designed to reveal gaps in students’ mathematical background which need to be addressed in this course. The assessment test will cover most of the topics outlined below. Students who score at least 90% on the assessment test will receive an unconditional waiver (a pass), so they don’t have to sit the final and submit homeworks. Students scoring between 50% and 90% will receive a conditional waiver, so they don’t have to sit the final, but have to submit the problem sets. Problem sets are not graded in principle, but failure of submission lowers the final exam grade by 1 point/problem.