This course aims to broaden its students’ knowledge and understanding of modern Jewish political behaviour. The starting point is the premise that Jewish politics, both in Europe and the United States, during the first half of the twentieth century, encompassed more than only a one-directional path leading to the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. Zionism’s eventual “victory” enabled the ascription of a normative label of “failure”, or marginality, to other (rival) political paths and mindsets. By exploring different Jewish political identities and actions, the course’s participants will gain an increased sense of the fluidity and variety of Jewish political reality during the period under consideration. Not only will we investigate the histories of Jewish political movements such as the Jewish Labour Bund, various forms of Diaspora Nationalism, Folkism, Zionism, and Territorialism, as well as of Jewish socialist, communist, and anarchist groups and individuals, but we will also focus on less clearly organised forms of Jewish politics by looking at the connection between religion and politics, culture and politics (and culture as politics), Yiddishism, American-Jewish politics and Jewish assimilationist tendencies. We will read samples from some of the “classics” of Jewish political history (Frankel, Mendelsohn, Gitelman, a.o.), while leaving also ample space for an exploration of the more recent burgeoning field of post-post-Zionist scholarly work (Rabinovitch, Karlip, Loeffler a.o.). Finally, numerous primary sources will be central to our seminar discussions.